It was the first time a whole day's Test play in England had been lost to bad weather since August 24, 2013 when the fourth day of the fifth Ashes clash at The Oval was abandoned without a ball bowled.
This was after Anderson took two wickets in the space of 15 balls as he sent the Indian top-order reeling in a 31-minute passage of play.
Put in to bat after incessant rain completely washed out the opening day, India failed to recover from the early jolts of openers Murali Vijay (0) and Lokesh Rahul (8) before the showers disrupted the proceedings in the morning session.
After a rain delay, Cheteshwar Pujara was run out by debutant Ollie Pope and a downpour followed immediately.
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Kohli, who was looking all at sea against Woakes, finally fell to the right-armer in his third over, with Jos Buttler making no mistake this time at second slip.
In the first over back, Kohli, off strike, refused an easy single called by Pujara.
Instead of taking on the challenge himself, the divisive skipper turned around and headed back towards bowler's end, leaving Pujara stranded, with nowhere to go.
Thereafter, wickets began to fall in heaps with Hardik Pandya (10) falling to Woakes before left-armer Sam Curran took Dinesh Karthik's (1) stumps for a ride. India also make two changes: Cheteshwar Pujara is in for Shikhar Dhawan, who is yet again dropped during an overseas series, and the mystery spinner Kuldeep Yadav replaces Umesh Yadav.
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Callaway, the Browns' fourth-round pick, played despite being cited for marijuana possession and driving with a suspended license. At the time he exited, Mayfield was also tied for the team lead in rushing yards (13, on three attempts).
Seasoned quick James Anderson took both the Indian wickets.
It was another run out nightmare for Pujara to forget. While left-arm spinner Kuldeep Yadav and Ravichandran Ashwin may play a key role to trap Englishmen.
While England are still favourites to get the first-innings lead, a cracking game would be set up if India can keep the lead to somewhere below 50.
Woakes, who reached his century off just 129 balls, is playing in place of Ben Stokes, who was forced to miss the second test as he stands trial in a court in Bristol charged with affray.
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Asked specifically about his chat with Silva, he continued: 'I did not need a lot of convincing. Everton always was a big option for me, especially after speaking with the coach, Marco Silva.